The 32D 'Red Arrow' Veteran Association

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: WW2 32nd Division insignia

The 32D Infantry Division

in World War II

The ‘Red Arrow’

Warren Force during the Battle of Buna

 

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: flag-thin

Warren Force during the Battle of Buna

Circa 22 November 1942 the units on the 32D Division’s right flank were designated ‘Warren Force’. BG Hanford MacNider (McNider) was initially placed in command of this unit. He was a member of LG Robert Eichelberger’s staff who had recently been attached to the 32D Division. The units of ‘Warren Force’ consisted of the 1ST and 3D Battalions of the 128TH Infantry, a detachment of 1ST Battalion, 126TH Infantry, and one Australian independent company.

“On the evening of 22 November, Harding received an order from MacArthur’s headquarters to press an attack on the following day 'regardless of cost.' Convinced that the higher headquarters did not and could not know the strength of the Japanese defensive positions, and believing that strict adherence to the order could result in the destruction of his entire force on the coastal flank, Harding took upon himself responsibility for putting his own interpretation on the 'regardless of cost' phrase. He got General MacNider on the telephone and gave him the order as he had received it. He directed that everything available be put into the attack and that it be pressed to the limit, but that it be called off if and when it became clearly evident that it was making no headway and could only result in the piling up of needless casualties. He further informed MacNider that he assumed full responsibility for the modification of the order.” (Blakeley 69)

On 23 November 1942, the attack was renewed. Some initial progress was made, with the help of effective mortar and artillery support (coordinated by LTC Alexander MacNab (McNab), 128TH Inf. XO), but the attack was eventually halted. General Harding did not receive any criticism for modifying the order.

General MacNider was seriously WIA by an enemy rifle grenade at about 1830 hours on 23 November and had to be evacuated, he was succeeded by COL J. Tracy Hale (128TH Inf.) as ‘Warren Force’ commander. BG MacNider was bestowed with his 3rd DSC for his actions about this time; he earned his first 2 DSCs during WWI. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. [added 13 Dec. ‘12]

The next two days were mostly devoted to preparing for an attack scheduled for 26 November.

MG Harding departed from the Division CP at Embogo the evening of 25 November in order to go forward and personally observe the ‘Warren Force’ attack set for the next day. The small supply boat Helen Dawn was going to haul some ammunition to the supply dump at Hariko, so the General was able to catch a ride. Unfortunately the Helen Dawn grounded on a sandbar about 3 miles from its destination, so MG Harding had to make the rest of his trip via row boat. He reached COL Hale’s ‘Warren Force’ CP at Hariko at 0445 hours on 26 November. He paid brief visits to LTC McCoy’s 1ST Bn., 128TH Inf. CP and LTC Carrier’s 1ST Bn., 126TH Inf. CP, he continued on to LTC Miller’s 3D Bn., 128TH Inf. CP. [added 16 Mar. ‘14]

On 26 November, Thanksgiving Day, the attack was initiated with air, artillery, mortar and heavy machine gun prepatory fire, but it all had little effect on the well-protected enemy troops. MG Harding was well forward to observe. The 3D Bn., 128TH Inf. (LTC Miller) ran into fierce resistance from well concealed Japanese. Some of the infantry became disoriented in the deep swamps. Japanese fighter planes also had some impact on the attack.

A flight of about 13 Japanese planes from Lae, likely a combination of Zeros and Vals, attacked Allied positions in the Buna-area on 26 November. Australian positions, including a field hospital, were hit at Soputa, resulting in 22 KIA and 50 WIA. The planes also hit positions of the 3D Bn., 128TH Inf., which was pushing north along the coast toward Cape Endaiadere, resulting in 6 KIA. The Japanese planes also shot down two C-47s that were supporting the 32D Div. and Australians, damaged two more C-47s on the ground, and sunk the Helen Dawn when they found it still grounded on the sandbar. [added 16 Mar. ‘14]

The attack had failed, but not from lack of gallantry.

“During the heavy fighting on Colonel Carrier's front that afternoon, Pvt. Howard M. Eastwood of Company C, 126th Infantry, single-handedly attacked a ten-man party of the enemy whom he had discovered to his front on a scouting mission. Standing upright in the tall grass, he engaged the Japanese with fire from his submachine gun, killing several and dispersing the others. Killed by an enemy sniper in the area, Eastwood was posthumously awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.” (Milner 181)

PVT Eastwood was from Garvin County, Oklahoma. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. Blakeley, on page 70, lists him as PVT Howard M. Eastward of Co. G.

Numerous Soldiers earned the Silver Star for their gallantry during the attack on 26 November. Some of them are listed below and additional about them and their medals can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients.

1LT Lester Taylor Mooney, from Norman, Oklahoma, and assigned to Co. K, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 26 November near Buna. Later, CPT Mooney was KIA 9 Feb. '44 while commanding Co. K, 128TH Inf. near Saidor, New Guinea. [added 25 Jan. ‘13]

SGT Dudley M. Brice, from Eau Claire, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. B, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 26 November near Cape Endaiadere. WIA in the shoulder during an attack on 26 Nov., he hastily had his wound dressed and immediately returned to the front to lead his platoon in another attack. He was WIA again on 29 Nov., this time his wounds were more serious and he was evacuated for hospitalization and ultimately an honorable discharge. He was a SGT in Co. B, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Eau Claire, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 19 Feb. ‘13]

Tec. 5 Francis D. (S.) Klein, from Lancaster, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 26 November near Buna. He was a PVT in Co. M, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Platteville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 13 Apr. ‘13]

CPL Leland E. (L.) Genthe, from Platteville, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his efforts to rescue wounded comrades from swampy, fire-swept terrain on 26 November near Buna Mission. He was a PVT in Co. M, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Platteville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 7 Apr. ‘13]

CPL Paul E. (P.) Green, from Fennimore, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 26 November near Buna. He was a PVT in Co. M, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Platteville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 8 Apr. ‘13]

CPL Donald R. Muench, from Lancaster, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his efforts to direct Allied artillery fire from a machine gun raked tree near Buna on 26 November. He was a PVT in Co. M, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Platteville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 19 Apr. ‘13]

CPL Matthew Suslje (Susjle), from Nokomis, Illinois, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 26 November near Buna. [added 2 May ‘13]

PFC Lloyd G. Carter, from Highland or Montfort, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. M, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for actions on 26 November near Buna. He was a PVT in Co. M, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Platteville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 27 Mar. ‘13]

On 27 November another misplaced Allied air attack caused three casualties in Lt. Fryday’s Company I, 128TH Infantry in positions on the west side of New Strip.

In addition to these problems, by 28 November, there was only one operational supply boat left. The others had been damaged or destroyed by enemy action or accidents. There weren't enough aircraft available to adequately supply the troops solely by air. Once supplies did land at the Dobodura air strip, they still had to be transported to the front, 10 or 12 miles away. The few available trails were not suitable for vehicles. Natives were hired to carry supplies and help evacuate the wounded, but they would not go into the areas being reached by enemy fire. The soldiers had to carry the supplies the rest of the way themselves.

On 30 November an attack was scheduled for Warren Force and Urbana Force. Both attacks were better planned and organized than previous attempts. The fire support was better coordinated on both fronts.

Warren Force was able to advance to the enemy’s main line of resistance, but was stopped by the well-built defensive works. There were no tanks or artillery to destroy the bunkers and the unit had little equipment or training for attacks on these positions.

CPT Edward H. Sandell, from Rock County, Wisconsin, and assigned to HQ Co., 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 30 November near Buna. The decoration was bestowed posthumously, he was KIA 25 Dec. ‘42. He was a 2LT in Co. L, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Beloit, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 13 Feb. ‘13]

SSG Norman J. Bland, from Kalamazoo, Michigan, and assigned to Co. C, 126TH Inf., earned the Silver Star (posthumously) for his actions on 1 December near Buna. He was a PVT in Co. C, 126TH Inf., Michigan National Guard, at Kalamazoo, MI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 18 Feb. ‘13]
 

At this point you should return to the main Battle of Buna page for some information related to the 32D Division as a whole. You will then be directed back to this point at the appropriate time.


On 3 December 1942, COL Clarence A. Martin (I Corps G-3) was given command of the 128TH Infantry and Warren Force; he succeeded COL J. Tracy Hale.

COL Hale, from Milwaukee, WI, entered the service on 18 May '17 as an applicant to the Officers Reserve Training Camp at Ft. Sheridan, IL.  He was honorably discharged from the program on 24 Jun. '17 in order to accept a lieutenancy in Co. E, 5TH Wis. Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Watertown, WI, where he was commissioned 1LT ca. the end of Jul. '17.  After the organization of the 32D Div., he was assigned as a 1LT and battalion scout officer in 3D Bn., 125TH Inf.  He was severely WIA ca. late Jul.-early Aug. ’18 during Aisne-Marne Campaign; after medical treatment he was discharged in Jan. '19.  He continued to serve with the Wis. Nat. Guard between the wars, holding positions from CPT to COL with HQ Co., 64TH Inf. Bde.; HQ, 22D Cav. Div.; 121ST FA Regt.  He was LTC in HQ, 127TH Inf. when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40.  COL Hale was seriously injured near Buna. The date and circumstances are unknown, but CPT Robert Winkler, while home on leave in Mar. '43, told the homefolks that COL Hale “is still fuming in a hospital, with his body encased in a cast for an injured spine.”  He earned the OLC to the Purple Heart during WWII, it is not clear if that is related to his spinal injury or some other wound.  COL Hale returned home ca. Aug. '44 and resumed his civilian endeavors soon after.  He was belatedly bestowed with the Bronze Star and CIB ca. 11 Jun. '50 for his actions at Buna.  He passed away 20 Feb. '56 and is interred at Silver Lake Cemetery, Lewiston Township, Columbia Co., WI.

COL Martin was awarded the OLC to the Silver Star for his actions on 2 December.  He was awarded his first Silver Star during WWI.  He is listed on the roster of Silver Star recipients.

What COL Martin did to receive the Silver Star is a bit of a mystery, to this amateur historian and webmaster anyway.  He visited the Warren Force front on 2 Dec. on behalf of LG Eichelberger, who was himself visiting the Urbana Force front.  Both parties reached their respective front line destinations in the late afternoon, during a lull in the fighting, which had been heavy and prolonged earlier in the day.  Due to the seeming absence of heavy fighting during their brief visits, both officers jumped to the conclusion that the 32D Div. had been sitting on their hands all day.  COL Martin himself said, in his zealous, knee-jerk report to his superior, that the front was “as quiet as the inside of an empty church.”  So how in the world could anyone attempt to justify a recommendation for the Silver Star for this I Corps staff officer during his brief visit to the front line?  I make every effort to avoid injecting my personal opinion into this historical record, but when I read about COL Martin’s inactions that day, as compared to reading the exploits of real Soldiers’ heroism and valor around that same time, it is difficult to quell my anger and disbelief.  [added 24 Oct. ’14, TPB]

On about 3 or 4 December, the arrival of five Bren-gun carriers manned by Australians and some forty tons of food and ammunition were gladly received on the Warren front.

On the morning of 5 December, attacks were scheduled for both Warren Force and Urbana Force. Warren Force was deployed from right to left: 3D Battalion, 128TH Infantry (with the Bren-gun carriers); 1ST Battalion, 128TH Infantry; Australian 2/6 Independent Company; 1ST Battalion, 126TH Infantry (minus a detachment).

“The attack was preceded by an ineffective strike of six A-20's, and by a brief artillery preparation. The lightly armored, open-topped Bren-gun carriers, completely inadequate for the tank role assigned them, were all knocked out within twenty minutes in spite of the gallantry of their crews, nearly all of whom were killed or wounded. (Blakeley 87)

 

Lieutenant Ian W. Walker (second in command of the Bren carriers and not actually involved in the attack) and an enlisted man went forward on foot after learning of this disaster. While being covered by fire from Co. L, 128TH Inf., the two Australians removed the guns and ammunition from three of their carriers. “Lieutenant Walker then, alone, went further forward to try to recover the weapons and ammunition of the other two carriers. He fell mortally wounded. The American Distinguished Service Cross was awarded to him posthumously. (Blakeley 88) His medal is listed on the roster of DSC recipients.

Numerous Soldiers were bestowed with the Silver Star for their actions on 5 December. Some of them are listed below and more information about them and their medals can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients.

SSG Milton O. Cline, from Monroe, Wisconsin and assigned to Co. K, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions between 26 November and 5 December near Buna. He was PVT in Co. K, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Monroe, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 1 Apr. ‘13]

SGT Victor L. Olson, from Colfax, Wisconsin, and assigned to the 128TH Inf., earned the first of his three Silver Stars for his actions on 5 December. He was a PVT in Co. A, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Menomonie, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 2 Jan. ‘13]

CPL Dale F. Booth, from Cumberland, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. D, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 5 December near Buna. He was a PFC in Co. D, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Rice Lake, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 19 Feb. ‘13]

PVT Ernest J. Weber, from Rice Lake, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. D, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his efforts on 5 December. He was a PVT in Co. D, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Rice Lake, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. [added 2 Jan. ‘13]

The day’s attack could not overcome the determined Japanese resistance, intense heat, quicksand, and deep water.

Gen. Waldron, acting Division commander, had been seriously wounded while observing Urbana Force's attack on 5 December. BG Frayne Baker, who was in command of the Division’s elements in Australia, succeeded Gen. Waldron. General Byers assumed command of the forward elements of the 32D.

2LT Rae M. Smith, from Superior, Wisconsin, and likely assigned to the 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 8 December Mundarupi Village. He was a PVT in Med. Det. (Rifle), 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Superior, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 13 Feb. ‘13]

SSG Elmer R. Buchanan, from Blissfield, Michigan, and assigned to Co. B, 126TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for leading a patrol of volunteers to attack Japanese pillboxes in the vicinity of “New Strip at Buna on 8 December. Several other members of his patrol also earned the Silver Star: SGT Richard J. Pieh from Adrian, MI; CPL Kenneth B. Clapp, from Adrian, MI (posthumous); CPL William J. Jacobs from Grand Rapids, MI; PFC Robert S. Buckowing from Grand Rapids, MI (posthumous). SSG Buchanan, SGT Pieh, and CPL Clapp were members of Co. B, 126TH Inf., Michigan National Guard, at Adrian, MI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. SGT Pieh was later bestowed with the DSC for his actions 20 Dec. ’44 on Leyte. CPL Clapp and PFC Buckowing were KIA during the patrol. More information about them and their medals can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 20 Feb. ‘13]

LG Eichelberger was finally convinced that the Japanese defensive positions facing Warren Force were too strong to be taken by frontal assaults. General Herring informed him that Australian troops and light tanks were on the way to reinforce Warren Force. For now he would continue to keep pressure on the enemy with probing attacks and fire. Specific pillboxes and bunkers would be selected and eliminated one by one. Also, COL Martin tried to get his 128TH Inf. better organized by attempting to reunite the mixed up companies with their parent battalions.

On 10 December the Australian 2/6 Independent Company was returned to the 7th Australian Division.

On 13 December, LG Eichelberger made more command changes in Warren Force. MAJ Beaver replaced LTC Carrier, who developed heart trouble, as commander of 1ST Bn., 126TH Infantry. MAJ Gordon Clarkson (I Corps staff) succeeded LTC McCoy (who went to the Division staff) in command of 1ST Bn., 128TH Infantry. LTC MacNab (McNab) (Warren Force XO) traded places with LTC Miller (CO of 3D Bn., 128TH Infantry). “All of these shifts were routine ones and involved no reflection on any of the officers concerned. (Blakeley 92)

SSG Hans M. Jensen, from Menomonie, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. A, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 15 December near Buna. He was a CPL in Co. A, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Menomonie, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 12 Apr. ‘13]

SGT Aaron Meyers, from St. Louis, Missouri, and assigned to Co. A, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 15 December near Buna. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 17 Apr. ‘13]

BG Byers, acting commander of the forward elements of the 32D Division, was WIA by a Japanese sniper while he was observing the attack on the Coconut Grove the morning of 16 December. LG Eichelberger was now the only U.S. general officer left in the combat area, so he took command of the forward elements of the 32D Division. “With three generals knocked out of action by enemy fire, Eichelberger says in Our Jungle Road to Tokyo that he permitted himself a grim chuckle as he recalled a fragment of the World War I song: “The General won the Croix de Guerre - But the so-and-so was never there - Hinkey, dinkey, parlez-vous. (qtd. in Blakeley 95)

BG Clovis E. Byers, originally from Columbus, Ohio, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions while observing the attack by Urbana Force on 16 December 1942 near Buna. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. [added 9 Jan. ‘13]

LG Eichelberger also pays tribute to the National Guard officers in the 32D Division: “There were many great commanders among the National Guard officers of the 32nd Division. In crises, I would like to have them again as comrades. I can mention only a few here: Colonels Merle H. Howe of Michigan and Herbert M. Smith of Wisconsin, MAJ H. E. [Hantelmann] of Iowa, MAJ Edmund R. Schroeder of Wisconsin, the inimitable CPT W. H. Dames of Wisconsin, whose Company G, 127th Infantry, never made a wrong move in battle. (qtd. in Blakeley 95)

This table contains ten Associated Press photos taken in the Buna area in November and December of 1942. These photos were contributed in memory of Edward S. Anderson, a 32D Infantry Division Veteran who served with the 114TH Eng. Bn. (Companies A & C) in New Guinea and the Philippines. The photo captions, in italics, are the original captions from when the photos were taken. The photos were contributed by M. Anderson, Edward Anderson's nephew.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna20(t).jpg“Scout Car Crosses Stream on New Guinea – An army scout car takes a jungle stream in New Guinea with ease - - more or less. While soldiers push, some of their buddies watch from the “privacy” of their bath. The Americans were reported, Nov. 13, to be pushing the Jap army down the Buna trail.” Associated Press photo dated 11-13-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna21(t).jpg“Peeps in New Guinea Traffic Jam – Heavy traffic on a jungle trail in New Guinea has American Peeps moving in single file – no passing to the right. The Army vehicles move up with no room for anything much coming in the opposite direction.” Associated Press photo dated 11-14-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna15(t).jpg“Mortar Blasts at Japs in New Guinea – An American three inch trench mortar, almost hidden in a deep New Guinea jungle lets loose at a Jap position as the combined force of Australians and Americans under General MacArthur worked its way across the Owen Stanley Mountain Range to trap the enemy in the Buna-Gona area.” Associated Press photo dated 12-15-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna16(t).jpg“Allies Toil Across New Guinea to Attack Japs – Working their way across the trackless New Guinea jungles and mountain wastes of the Owen Stanley Ranges, to get a crack at the Japs in the Buna-Gona area, engineer troops of a combined Australian-American task force under General MacArthur build a bridge to move men and equipment to an advance base on jeeps and motorized transport. After almost three months they finally trapped the Japs along Buna Bay.” Associated Press photo dated 12-15-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/sutton%20and%20poole(t).jpg“’Wild Man’ From Michigan Takes Jap Bullet Calmly – Described as a “Wild Man” at the front and credited with killing between 30 and 40 japs as his unit cross New Guinea to trap the enemy in the Buna-Gona area, Private First Class Orin Sutton (left) of Charlevoix, Mich., sits calmly and has his leg bandaged after he was hit by a Jap machine gun bullet. He was back in action in less than 24 hours. Doing the bandaging is Private First Class Allie Poole of Petersburg, Mich.” Associated Press photo dated 12-15-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna19(t).jpg“Manpower Moves Ammunition for Attack on Japs – Ammunition for three inch trench mortars is loaded on the back of a pack carrier for transport to weapons set up in the jungles of New Guinea as a combined Australian and American task force under General MacArthur advanced against the Japs and trapped them in the Buna-Gona area.” Associated Press photo dated 12-15-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna17(t).jpg“Exhausted Jap Prisoner Observed by Americans – American soldiers on the Buna front watch an exhausted Japanese prisoner. This picture is one of several release by the Army from among those made by Edward Widdis, Associated Press photographer, who was encamped with the fighting forces just 100 yards behind the front in Buna.” Associate Press photo dated 12-18-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna18(t).jpg“Moving in For Jap Flank – Moving along the Buna Road in New Guinea, these American soldiers were to open a flanking movement against the Japs in the bitter fighting in that area. They moved up toward the Japs single file, well scattered.” Associate Press photo dated 12-18-42.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/soputa(t).jpg“Bringing Home the Wounded – American soldiers on the Soputa front near Buna, New Guinea, bear their wounded to headquarters as they return from 11 days fighting the Japs. Note the automatic gun by the soldiers side on the stretcher." Associated Press photo 12-24-42.”

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/soputa2(t).jpg“Hot Food Comes to a Fox Hole – Hot food has come up to these soldiers in the line on the Soputa front near Buna, New Guinea. These Americans were in the line 11 days. Hot food was brought up through the jungle and underbrush as often as possible despite the danger. L. to R.: Private William Mills, Sommerville, Mass.; Private Hebert Van Lier, Boston, Mass.; Private Edward K. Fairbanks, Sommerville, Mass.; and Sgt. Joseph P. Doran, Nahant, Mass.” Associate Press photo dated 12-24-42.


Meanwhile, the engineers were making progress constructing jeep trails to the front, although they needed to build a bridge a hundred feet long to cross a stream that was only six feet wide but bordered by swamps. These improved trails would make supply, evacuation and communication easier.
 

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo
Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna(t).jpg
Soldiers and supplies on the way to the front line at Buna.

Brigadier George F. Wooten, his headquarters, eight light M-3 tanks and a battalion of infantry arrived as welcome reinforcements for Warren Force. All of these were Australian troops and a second Australian battalion was on the way.

On 17 December Brigadier Wooten became the commander of Warren Force.

LG Eichelberger scheduled the next attack for 18 December. Warren Force was assigned the successive objectives of Cape Endaiadere, the New Strip, the Old Strip, and Giropa Point. Urbana Force would be tasked with cleaning out the Triangle, driving through to the coast, and cutting the coast road between Giropa Point and Buna Mission (a.k.a. Buna Government Station).

Warren Force's new tank squadron moved into its attack position on the right of the line late on 17 December. The tanks were able to move up without being detected by the enemy because a mortar barrage had masked the noise of the tanks.

From 0650 to 0700 on 18 December there was a brief but intense air, artillery and mortar preparation. The Australian 2/9 Battalion moved up to the line of departure during this preparation. At 0700, the Australian tanks and infantry began their attack northward across Duropa Plantation toward Cape Endaiadere. The 3D Bn., 128TH Inf. followed the Australians to mop up the area. The 1ST Bn., 128TH swung west to help the Australians when they encountered heavy fire from bunkers near the east end of the New Strip. On the left, 1ST Bn., 126TH Inf., kept pressure on the positions at the West End of the strip. The Australians were able to reach Cape Endaiadere within an hour, but they had suffered heavy casualties and lost two tanks along the way. At Cape Endaiadere they headed west along the coast until they were stopped by a strong enemy position near Strip Point.

“NEW” photo added 4 Dec. 12

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/Cape%20Endaiadere(t).jpg

Wounded U.S. and Australian soldiers wait to be evacuated near Cape Endaiadere.

The infantry had encountered fierce opposition from a large strongpoint on the east end of the New Strip; so the remaining Australian tanks were sent over there to help. The twenty pillboxes which made up the strongpoint were reduced late in the afternoon. “Duropa Plantation had turned out to be good tank country, as General Harding had thought, and the tanks had been decisive in the day’s success. (Blakeley 96)

Most of 19 December was spent mopping up the newly gained areas and trying to reorganize the units that had become mixed during the previous day's action.

On 20-21 December there was some intense fighting in the area north and east of Simemi Creek before the Japanese were driven out. The Australian 2/10 Battalion had arrived and became the reserve.

The next phase of the advance required getting across Simemi Creek, which presented a major obstacle for both tanks and infantry. There was one narrow bridge midway between New Strip and Old Strip, but it was 125 feet long due to the swamps on both sides of the Creek. On top of that, the Japanese had blown a gap in the middle of the bridge.

Around noon on 20 December, elements of the 1ST Bn., 128TH Inf. made the first attempt to get across the bridge. They soon discovered that it was covered by well-placed machine guns, protected by riflemen. “Private Steve W. Parks earned the Distinguished Service Cross by rescuing a seriously wounded fellow soldier during the unsuccessful action. (Blakeley 96)

PVT Parks was from Rice Lake, Wisconsin. He was a PVT in Co. D, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Rice Lake, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. [added 28 Dec. ‘12]

“The next attempt was made later in the day by a detachment from the 1st Battalion, 126th Infantry, under Lieutenant John E. Sweet. Under cover of a smoke screen, a catwalk was successfully carried forward to the hole in the bridge, but it was not long enough to span the gap. Sweet was also awarded the [Distinguished Service Cross]. (Blakeley 96)

2LT Sweet was from Pennsylvania and the reason for his award of the DSC may have been his actions on 26 December. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. [added 17 Dec. ‘12]

The 4 Soldiers from the 126TH Inf. who carried the catwalk to the gap in the bridge across Simemi Creek on 20 December and earned the Silver Star for their actions were, CPL Wright C. Chambless, Jr. from Van Buren, Kansas or somewhere in Arkansas (had ties to both states); CPL Malcolm H. Hillard from Mount Pleasant, Michigan; PVT Thomas E. Doss from Dearborn, Michigan; and PVT Floyd A. Sujkowski from Saginaw, Michigan. More information about them and their medals can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 11 Apr. ‘13]

PVT Douglas C. Rodgers (Rogers), from Kalamazoo, Michigan, and assigned to Co. C, 126TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for role in the attempted bridge repair on 20 December. In addition to assisting in carrying some of the repair materials, he also provided covering fire with an automatic rifle while the other men tried to complete the repairs. He was a PVT in Co. C, 126TH Inf., Michigan National Guard, at Kalamazoo, MI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 26 Apr. ‘13]

Several other attempts were made to force a crossing at other points of the creek, but none were successful. Late in the day, the Australian 2/10 Battalion, which had just arrived, was assigned the task of finding a crossing.

On 21 December, after extensive reconnoitering, often in neck deep water, the 2/10 Battalion was able to make an undetected crossing a few hundred yards below the bridge.

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/m-3%20aust5(t).jpg

M-3 Stuart light tanks manned by the 2/6 Australian Armored Regiment, near Duropa Plantation near Buna, New Guinea, on 21 December 1942.

Around noon on 23 December the Australians finished clearing the area on the far side of the bridge. “In the meanwhile, the 3rd Platoon (Lieutenant James Doughtie) of Company C, 114th Engineer Battalion, had begun the work of repairing the bridge. Although fire continued to come into the area from Japanese positions near the Old Strip even after the Australians had cleared the immediate vicinity of the bridge, the engineers proceeded rapidly and efficiently to get in a span which permitted Major Beaver's 1st Battalion, 126th Infantry, to cross. By dark, the bridge was ready to carry tanks. Lieutenant Doughtie was later awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his part in this task. (Blakeley 97)

2LT Doughtie was from Massachusetts. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients.

Several Soldiers earned the Silver Star for their gallantry on 23 December near Buna, presumably for assisting 2LT Doughtie in the repair of the bridge over Simemi Creek. Some of them are listed hear and more information about them and their medals can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients.

SGT Murdock E. MacPherson, from Bedford, Massachusetts, and assigned to Co. C, 114TH Engr. Bn., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 23 December near Buna. [added 15 Apr. ‘13]

Tec. 5 Wallace I. Van Cor, from Cambridge or Melrose Heights, Massachusetts, and assigned to Co. C, 114TH Engr. Bn., earned the Silver Star for carrying an Australian casualty to safety and assisting in the repair of a bridge over Simemi Creek under heavy enemy fire on 23 December near Buna. [added 22 Apr. ‘13]

Tec. 4 Irving M. Lawrence, from Lakeville, Massachusetts, and assigned to the 114TH Engr. Bn., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 23 December near Buna. [added 15 Apr. ‘13]

1LT Philip (Phillip) S. Winson, from Detroit, Michigan, and assigned to the 32D Signal Co., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 23 December near Buna. 1LT Winson, with a patrol of 20 Soldiers from the 126TH Inf., was laying communication wire to a forward position when they were attacked. Finding five unoccupied Japanese pillboxes, they organized a hasty defense and held the bunkers until re-enforcements arrived. When they were relieved, only 5 Soldiers remained alive. Winson was a MSG in HQ Co., 125TH Inf., Michigan National Guard, at Detroit, MI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 15 Feb. ‘13]

MAJ Clarkson’s 1ST Bn., 128TH Inf., crossed the bridge that evening (23 December) and moved up on the left of 1ST Bn., 126TH Inf.

Near sunset on 23 December, Soldiers from Svc. Co., 128TH Inf. and 32D QM Co. were unloading ammunition from the barge Eva at the Allied supply base at Hariko. Without warning two Japanese motorboats rounded Cape Endaiadere and attacked the barge, which quickly sank. Later, at about 2250 hours, the Japanese boats returned and raked the beach near Hariko with .50-caliber tracer ammunition. The Soldiers responded with small arms fire, but the motorboats slipped away before they could be engaged with heavy weapons. This meant that beach defenses had to be tightened up, both to prevent a similar attack and also in an effort to prevent the Japanese from landing reinforcements with these boats, which they had done before. [updated 20 May ‘14]

2LT John A. Pinkowsky, from Clintonville, Wisconsin, and assigned to 32D QM Co., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 23 December near Hariko. He was a 2LT in Co. A, 107TH QM Regt., Wisconsin National Guard, at Clintonville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 19 May ‘14]

Tec. 4 Wilfred D. Evans, from Neillsville, Wisconsin, and assigned to Svc. Co., 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 23 December near Hariko. He was a PVT in Svc. Co., 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Neillsville, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 4 Apr. ‘13]

Early on 24 December, four tanks crossed the bridge and joined the 2/10 Battalion on the right flank. An all-out attack (Australians and Americans) commenced at 0950. It initially showed promise, but it was soon reduced to a very slow and costly advance, at the loss of 3 of the tanks. Colonel Yamamoto, the Japanese commander, had organized a very effective defense in the Old Strip area. Both of his flanks were tied into the impenetrable swamps and he had a strong, well-organized position laid out in depth with barbed wire, trenches and bunkers, all supported by well-sited artillery and machine guns.

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/buna14(t).jpg

Soldiers carrying rations along a trail to the front lines near New Strip, Buna Area, New Guinea, on 24 December 1942.

From 24 to 28 December, “Warren Force was to experience bitter fighting, marked by fanatical Japanese resistance, futile attempts to struggle through the swamps on the enemy’s flanks, and many examples of individual courage and devotion to duty. (Blakeley 97)

The Australians and Americans of Warren Force resumed their attack at 0700 on Christmas Day 1942. The American battalions were soon halted by strong resistance. In an effort to gain momentum, COL Martin sent a detachment from 1ST Bn., 128TH Inf., into the swamp to attempt to find a way around the enemy’s right flank. The detachment’s commander reported that the swamp was impenetrable. Determined to find a way through, COL Martin personally accompanied another detachment, led by 2LT George J. Hess from Co. A, 128TH Inf., far enough into the swamp to assure himself that the task could be accomplished. Lt. Hess and his men struggled through and were able to get around to the enemy’s rear. However, the detachment was not strong enough to attack and COL Martin wasn't able to get reinforcements, led by 1LT Donald A. Foss of Co. C, 128TH Inf., over there until after dark.

“The Army official history of the campaign [Victory in Papua] says of Martin [who had been awarded the Silver Star in WWI and the OLC on 2 Dec. ‘42]: ‘At one point in the day’s fighting he climbed a tall tree that overlooked the Japanese positions in order to get a better bead on enemy troops lurking in the tall grass immediately to his front. From this vantage point he killed several of them with a rifle.’ The record indicates that Colonel Martin’s courageous leadership on Christmas Day was typical rather than exceptional. It is significant that the citation for his Distinguished Service Cross does not refer to one act, but covers the period 3 December to 5 January 1943. (qtd. in Blakeley 100)

2LT George J. Hess, from Edgerton, WI and assigned to Co. A, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for leading his patrol through the swamp and into the Japanese rear area at the Old Strip near Buna on 25 December. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. 1LT Hess later earned the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions 28 Jan. ’44 near Saidor, see the roster of DSC recipients. [added 14 Oct. ‘14]

The Australian Co. C, 2/10 Bn. was also forced their way through the swamp to a position near Co. C. During 26-28 December, the fight for the Old Strip area continued; marked by fierce enemy resistance and fanatical counterattacks both day and night.

Tec. 5 Sydney E. Anderson, from Madison, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. A, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 28 December near Buna Mission. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 6 Apr. ‘14]

Tec. 5 Max G. Knowles, from Loretta, Wisconsin, and assigned to Co. A, 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 28 December near Buna. He was a PVT in Co. A, 128TH Inf., Wisconsin National Guard, at Menomonie, WI, when 32D Div. mobilized on 15 Oct. '40. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 13 Apr. ‘13]

The last Japanese counterattack occurred at about 0400 on 29 December, when about twenty Japanese were able to get as far as the Co. C, 128TH Inf. CP. This resulted in 15 American's killed, including 1LT Donald A. Foss (CO of Co. C), plus 12 wounded. This counterattack gained no ground; the Old Strip had been seized from the Japanese!

1LT Foss had been Co. C’s fifth commander since it entered combat five weeks earlier. Seeing as 1LT Foss was Co. C’s last remaining officer, 1LT Sheldon M. Donnelly, CO of Co. A, 128TH Inf. and adjacent to Co. C, assumed command of Co. C as well for the time being.

Blakely, in The 32D Infantry Division in World War II, stated that Lt. Sheldon M. Donnelly was the commander of Co. C killed that day. This seems to be a minor typographical error and transposition of names. [added 27 Jan. ‘13]

1LT Clifford P. Hannum, from Indiana and the S-3 for 1ST Bn., 126TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 29 December 1942 near Buna. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 14 Jan. ‘13]

SGT Howard P. Morrison, from Rogers, AR and assigned to Co A., 128TH Inf., earned the Silver Star for his actions on 29 December 1942 near Buna. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of Silver Star recipients. [added 21 May ‘14]

Warren Force, now reinforced by another Australian battalion and some additional tanks, started to move up the coast toward Giropa Point. They attacked on 29 December, but made little progress. Activity on 30-31 December consisted mostly of reconnaissance and reorganization.
 

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo
Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/32(t).jpg

American troops crawl through a swamp to attack Japanese at Buna, New Guinea.

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo
Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/32a(t).jpg

Mortar crew dispatches three-inch shells into Japanese positions.

U.S. Army Signal Corps photo
Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: http://www.32nd-division.org/history/ww2/buna/32b(t).jpg

Australian manned M-3 Stuart tank slugs it out at pointblank range with a Japanese pillbox at Giropa Point in the Buna area of New Guinea.

The attack continued on New Year’s Day of 1943, and made good progress.

On the morning of 2 January, with a combined effort from all of the elements of Warren Force (Brigadier Wooten's Australians, MAJ Clarkson’s 1ST Battalion, 128TH Infantry, and LTC MacNab’s (McNab) 3D Battalion, 128TH Infantry), the Giropa Point area was taken, as usual, there were few Japanese prisoners. LTC MacNab (McNab) was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. More information about him and his medal can be found on the roster of DSC recipients. [added 12 Dec. ‘12]

Return to the main Battle of Buna page.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: flag-thin

Bibliography (primary sources for historical information regarding the 32D ‘The Red Arrow’ Infantry Division’s exploits during World War II):

Blakeley, H. W., Major General, Retired.  The 32D Infantry Division in World War II.  The Thirty-second Infantry Division History Commission, State of Wisconsin, n.d.
Cannon, M. Hamlin.  Leyte: The Return to the PhilippinesU. S. Army Center of Military History, 1954.
Carlisle, John M.  Red Arrow Men: Stories About the 32nd Division on the Villa Verde.  Detroit: Arnold-Powers, Inc., 1945.

Drea, Edward J.  Defending the Driniumor: Covering Force Operations in New Guinea, 1944.  Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1984.

Drea, Edward J.  New Guinea - The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II.  U. S. Army Center of Military History, n.d.
Hill, Jim Dan, Major General, Retired.  The Minute Man in Peace and War.  Harrisburg: The Stackpole Company, 1964.
Jungwirth, Clarence J.  Diary of a National Guardsman in World War II.  Oshkosh, WI: Poeschl Printing Company, 1991.
Mayo, Lida.  Bloody Buna.  Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press, 1975.

Miller, John, Jr.  Cartwheel: The Reduction of Rabaul.  U. S. Army Center of Military History, 1959.

Milner, Samuel.  Victory in Papua.  U. S. Army Center of Military History, 1957.
Papuan Campaign - The Buna-Sanananda Operation.  Washington, D.C.: Historical Division, War Department, 1945.
The Red Arrow - 1955 - The 32D Division, Wisconsin National Guard.  n.p., 1955.
Smith, Herbert M., Lieutenant Colonel, Retired. Four Score and Ten: Happenings in the Life of Herbert M. Smith.  Eau Claire, WI: Heins Publications, 1995.

Smith, Herbert M., Lieutenant Colonel, Retired. Hannibal Had Elephants II.  Eau Claire, WI: Rev. William A. Heins, 1995.

Smith, Robert Ross.  The Approach to the Philippines.  U. S. Army Center of Military History, 1953.
Smith, Robert Ross. 
Triumph in the Philippines.  U. S. Army Center of Military History, 1963.

Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: flag-thin

Back To 32D Division in World War II
Contact the 32D 'Red Arrow' Veteran Association Webmaster

revised 24 October 2014
since 15 March 1999